Rss Feed
Tweeter button
Facebook button
Technorati button
Reddit button
Myspace button
Linkedin button
Webonews button
Delicious button
Digg button
Flickr button
Stumbleupon button
Newsvine button

Changes to the NT Service API

By , February 3, 2018 10:25 am

All of our Validator tools have an NT Service API.

We’ve just made some changes to the NT Service API. This article documents those changes and why we made them.

The changes to the NT Service API, break the existing API behaviour, and improve the existing API behaviour.

If you are using the NT Service API, you should read this article.

For the purposes of this article I’m going to describe the NT Service API for C++ Memory Validator. The changes apply to the NT Service APIs for each C++ Validator tool, the only thing that is different is the function name prefix of svlBVStub_, svlCVStub_, svlMVStub_, svlPVStub_, svlTVStub_. If you can’t directly use the NT Service API due to compiler/linker issues, please consult the documentation for your Validator to see an alternative way of getting the same result.

Changes to the API

  • We changed the name of an enumeration and extended the values in the enumeration.
  • We split some functions into two parts so that they could be reused with other functions to achieve a better result.
  • We added some debugging functions to help you debug any failures when using the API.

SVL_SERVICE_ERROR

The SVL_ERROR enumeration has been renamed to SVL_SERVICE_ERROR.

The definition for SVL_SERVICE_ERROR is now in it’s own include file svlServiceError.h rather than defined in the NT Service API header file (svlMVStubService.h for C++ Memory Validator).

typedef enum _svlServiceError
{
   SVL_OK,                              // Normal behaviour
   SVL_ALREADY_LOADED,                  // Stub DLL already loaded into service
   SVL_LOAD_FAILED,                     // Failed to load stub DLL into service
   SVL_FAILED_TO_ENABLE_STUB_SYMBOLS,   // Loaded DLL, but failed to enable stub symbols because couldn't find function
   SVL_NOT_LOADED,                      // Couldn't unload DLL because DLL not loaded
   SVL_FAIL_UNLOAD,                     // Couldn't unload DLL because couldn't find function
   SVL_FAIL_TO_CLEANUP_INTERNAL_HEAP,   // Couldn't get the internal stub heap and thus couldn't clean it up
   SVL_FAIL_MODULE_HANDLE               // Couldn't get the stub DLL handle so couldn't continue
   SVL_FAIL_SETSERVICECALLBACK,         // Couldn't call the set service callback
   SVL_FAIL_COULD_NOT_FIND_ENTRY_POINT, // Couldn't find the DLL entry point to start the validator
   SVL_FAIL_TO_START                    // Failed to start the Validator
} SVL_SERVICE_ERROR;

Split functionality

The previous implementation of svlMVStub_LoadMemoryValidator() and svlMVStub_LoadMemoryValidator6432() would load the Validator DLL, then start the Validator profiling the service.

The new implementation of svlMVStub_LoadMemoryValidator() and svlMVStub_LoadMemoryValidator6432() just loads the Validator DLL. It does not start the Validator profiling the service.

The reason for this change is that we wanted to allow the ability to set a service manager callback so that the service control manager could be informed about a long running instrumentation phase as the Validator is started. This is important because a delay of more than 10 seconds will cause the service control manager to kill the service.

To set the service callback call the svlMVStub_SetServiceCallback() function.

Then start the Validator with svlMVStub_StartMemoryValidator().

Loading, Starting, Unloading the Validator

To control the loading, starting and unloading of the Validator into the service, use these functions.

extern "C" SVL_SERVICE_ERROR svlMVStub_LoadMemoryValidator();

extern "C" SVL_SERVICE_ERROR svlMVStub_LoadMemoryValidator6432();

extern "C" SVL_SERVICE_ERROR svlMVStub_StartMemoryValidator();

extern "C" SVL_SERVICE_ERROR svlMVStub_UnloadMemoryValidator();

extern "C" SVL_SERVICE_ERROR svlMVStub_SetServiceCallback(serviceCallback_FUNC callback,
                                                          void*                userParam);

svlMVStub_LoadMemoryValidator

extern "C" SVL_SERVICE_ERROR svlMVStub_LoadMemoryValidator();

To load the Validator DLL into a 32 bit service when you are working with a 32 bit Validator, or to load the Validator DLL into a 64 bit service when you are working with a 64 bit Validator, use svlMVStub_LoadMemoryValidator().

svlMVStub_LoadMemoryValidator6432

extern "C" SVL_SERVICE_ERROR svlMVStub_LoadMemoryValidator6432();

To load the Validator DLL into a 32 bit service when you are working with a 64 bit Validator, use svlMVStub_LoadMemoryValidator6432().

svlMVStub_SetServiceCallback

extern "C" SVL_SERVICE_ERROR svlMVStub_SetServiceCallback(serviceCallback_FUNC callback,
                                                          void*                userParam);

Once you have successfully loaded the Validator DLL you can setup a service callback so that the service control manager can be kept updated during the process of starting the Validator.

When a service is starting, Windows requires the service to inform the Service Control Manager (SCM) that is starting at least every ten seconds. Failure to do so results in Windows concluding that the service has failed to start, and the service is terminated. Instrumenting your service may take more than 10 seconds, depending on the complexity and size of your service.

The solution is for the Validator to periodically call a user supplied callback from which you can regularly inform the SCM of the appropriate status.

Here is an example callback which ignores the userParam.

   void serviceCallback(void   *userParam)
   {
       static DWORD dwCheckPoint = 1;
   
       ssStatus.dwServiceType = SERVICE_WIN32_OWN_PROCESS;
       ssStatus.dwServiceSpecificExitCode = 0;

       ssStatus.dwControlsAccepted = 0;
      
       ssStatus.dwCurrentState = dwCurrentState;
       ssStatus.dwWin32ExitCode = dwWin32ExitCode;
       ssStatus.dwWaitHint = dwWaitHint;
      
       ssStatus.dwCheckPoint = dwCheckPoint++;
      
       // Report the status of the service to the service control manager.

       return SetServiceStatus(sshStatusHandle, &ssStatus);
   }

svlMVStub_StartMemoryValidator

extern "C" SVL_SERVICE_ERROR svlMVStub_StartMemoryValidator();

Once you have successfully loaded the Memory Validator DLL you can start the Validator inspecting the service by calling svlMVStub_StartMemoryValidator().

svlMVStub_UnloadMemoryValidator

extern "C" SVL_SERVICE_ERROR svlMVStub_UnloadMemoryValidator();

To unload the Validator DLL from your service call svlMVStub_UnloadMemoryValidator(), do not call FreeLibrary(). svlMVStub_UnloadMemoryValidator() shuts down various communications threads and removes any hooks that the Validator may have installed.

Debugging functions

We have added the following debugging functions to the NT Service API.

Before using these functions you must first set the log file name, otherwise the other debugging functions will do nothing.

The log file is opened for each write to the log file then closed afterwards. As such these log file functions are slow. Do not use these functions in any performance sensitive task. They are intended to allow you get debugging information out of a service when you’re trying to work out why something isn’t working, should you have problems.

extern "C" void svlMVStub_setLogFileName(const wchar_t* fileName);

extern "C" void svlMVStub_deleteLogFile();

extern "C" void svlMVStub_writeToLogFileA(const char* text);

extern "C" void svlMVStub_writeToLogFileW(const wchar_t* text);

extern "C" void svlMVStub_writeToLogFile(SVL_SERVICE_ERROR errCode);

extern "C" void svlMVStub_writeToLogFileLastError(DWORD errCode);

extern "C" void svlMVStub_dumpPathToLogFile();

svlMVStub_setLogFileName

To use any of the following logging functions you first need to set the name of the filename used for logging.
Setting this filename also sets the filename used by some of these API functions – you will find additional logging data from those functions that will help debug any issues with the service.

extern "C" void svlMVStub_setLogFileName(const wchar_t* fileName);

svlMVStub_deleteLogFile

extern "C" void svlMVStub_deleteLogFile();

This function deletes the log file.

svlMVStub_writeToLogFileA

extern "C" void svlMVStub_writeToLogFileA(const char* text);

Call this function to write a standard ANSI character string to the log file.

svlMVStub_writeToLogFileW

extern "C" void svlMVStub_writeToLogFileW(const wchar_t* text);

Call this function to write a unicode character string to the log file. The characters are cast to ANSI prior to writing. As such you can’t write Korean to the log file. This is simply a convenience function to write wide characters as simply as ANSI characters.

svlMVStub_writeToLogFile

extern "C" void svlMVStub_writeToLogFile(SVL_SERVICE_ERROR errCode);

Call this function to write a human readable description of the SVL_SERVICE_ERROR error code to the log file.

svlMVStub_writeToLogFileLastError

extern "C" void svlMVStub_writeToLogFileLastError(DWORD errCode);

Call this function to write a human readable description of the Windows error code to the log file.

svlMVStub_dumpPathToLogFile

extern "C" void svlMVStub_dumpPathToLogFile();

Call this function to write the contents of the PATH environment variable to the log file. This can be useful if you want to know what the search path is when trying to debug why a DLL wasn’t found during an attempt to load the Validator DLL.

NT Service API for each Validator

C++ Bug Validator

extern "C" SVL_SERVICE_ERROR svlBVStub_LoadBugValidator();

extern "C" SVL_SERVICE_ERROR svlBVStub_LoadBugValidator6432();

extern "C" SVL_SERVICE_ERROR svlBVStub_StartBugValidator();

extern "C" SVL_SERVICE_ERROR svlBVStub_UnloadBugValidator();

extern "C" SVL_SERVICE_ERROR svlBVStub_SetServiceCallback(serviceCallback_FUNC callback,
                                                          void*                userParam);

// debugging functions

extern "C" void svlBVStub_setLogFileName(const wchar_t* fileName);

extern "C" void svlBVStub_deleteLogFile();

extern "C" void svlBVStub_writeToLogFileA(const char* text);

extern "C" void svlBVStub_writeToLogFileW(const wchar_t* text);

extern "C" void svlBVStub_writeToLogFile(SVL_SERVICE_ERROR errCode);

extern "C" void svlBVStub_writeToLogFileLastError(DWORD errCode);

extern "C" void svlBVStub_dumpPathToLogFile();

C++ Coverage Validator

extern "C" SVL_SERVICE_ERROR svlCVStub_LoadCoverageValidator();

extern "C" SVL_SERVICE_ERROR svlCVStub_LoadCoverageValidator6432();

extern "C" SVL_SERVICE_ERROR svlCVStub_StartCoverageValidator();

extern "C" SVL_SERVICE_ERROR svlCVStub_UnloadCoverageValidator();

extern "C" SVL_SERVICE_ERROR svlCVStub_SetServiceCallback(serviceCallback_FUNC callback,
                                                          void*                userParam);

extern "C" void svlCVStub_setLogFileName(const wchar_t* fileName);

extern "C" void svlCVStub_deleteLogFile();

extern "C" void svlCVStub_writeToLogFileA(const char* text);

extern "C" void svlCVStub_writeToLogFileW(const wchar_t* text);

extern "C" void svlCVStub_writeToLogFile(SVL_SERVICE_ERROR errCode);

extern "C" void svlCVStub_writeToLogFileLastError(DWORD errCode);

extern "C" void svlCVStub_dumpPathToLogFile();

C++ Memory Validator

extern "C" SVL_SERVICE_ERROR svlMVStub_LoadMemoryValidator();

extern "C" SVL_SERVICE_ERROR svlMVStub_LoadMemoryValidator6432();

extern "C" SVL_SERVICE_ERROR svlMVStub_StartMemoryValidator();

extern "C" SVL_SERVICE_ERROR svlMVStub_UnloadMemoryValidator();

extern "C" SVL_SERVICE_ERROR svlMVStub_SetServiceCallback(serviceCallback_FUNC callback,
                                                          void*                userParam);

extern "C" void svlMVStub_setLogFileName(const wchar_t* fileName);

extern "C" void svlMVStub_deleteLogFile();

extern "C" void svlMVStub_writeToLogFileA(const char* text);

extern "C" void svlMVStub_writeToLogFileW(const wchar_t* text);

extern "C" void svlMVStub_writeToLogFile(SVL_SERVICE_ERROR errCode);

extern "C" void svlMVStub_writeToLogFileLastError(DWORD errCode);

extern "C" void svlMVStub_dumpPathToLogFile();

C++ Performance Validator

extern "C" SVL_SERVICE_ERROR svlPVStub_LoadPerformanceValidator();

extern "C" SVL_SERVICE_ERROR svlPVStub_LoadPerformanceValidator6432();

extern "C" SVL_SERVICE_ERROR svlPVStub_StartPerformanceValidator();

extern "C" SVL_SERVICE_ERROR svlPVStub_UnloadPerformanceValidator();

extern "C" SVL_SERVICE_ERROR svlPVStub_SetServiceCallback(serviceCallback_FUNC callback,
                                                          void*                userParam);

extern "C" void svlPVStub_setLogFileName(const wchar_t* fileName);

extern "C" void svlPVStub_deleteLogFile();

extern "C" void svlPVStub_writeToLogFileA(const char* text);

extern "C" void svlPVStub_writeToLogFileW(const wchar_t* text);

extern "C" void svlPVStub_writeToLogFile(SVL_SERVICE_ERROR errCode);

extern "C" void svlPVStub_writeToLogFileLastError(DWORD errCode);

extern "C" void svlPVStub_dumpPathToLogFile();

C++ Thread Validator

extern "C" SVL_SERVICE_ERROR svlTVStub_LoadThreadValidator();

extern "C" SVL_SERVICE_ERROR svlTVStub_LoadThreadValidator6432();

extern "C" SVL_SERVICE_ERROR svlTVStub_StartThreadValidator();

extern "C" SVL_SERVICE_ERROR svlTVStub_UnloadThreadValidator();

extern "C" SVL_SERVICE_ERROR svlTVStub_SetServiceCallback(serviceCallback_FUNC callback,
                                                          void*                userParam);

extern "C" void svlTVStub_setLogFileName(const wchar_t* fileName);

extern "C" void svlTVStub_deleteLogFile();

extern "C" void svlTVStub_writeToLogFileA(const char* text);

extern "C" void svlTVStub_writeToLogFileW(const wchar_t* text);

extern "C" void svlTVStub_writeToLogFile(SVL_SERVICE_ERROR errCode);

extern "C" void svlTVStub_writeToLogFileLastError(DWORD errCode);

extern "C" void svlTVStub_dumpPathToLogFile();

One Response to “Changes to the NT Service API”

  1. […] the NT Service APIs with additional functions to help debug any NT Service API failures. A separate blog post covers this topic. Services run in quite locked down environments, getting this information into […]

Leave a Reply

Panorama Theme by Themocracy